Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Providing a Renewable Fuel Choice

Today, almost 8 million vehicles on U.S. highways are flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). These vehicles can operate on gasoline or blends of gasoline and ethanol up to E85 (85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). As a renewable fuel, ethanol offers significant advantages. It is manufactured predominantly in the United States, made from homegrown feedstocks, and is cleaner burning than gasoline. An FFV, as its name implies, has the flexibility of running on more than one type of fuel. FFVs can be fueled with unleaded gasoline, E85, or any combination of the two. Like conventional gasoline vehicles, FFVs have a single fuel tank, fuel system, and engine. And they are available in a wide range of models such as sedans, pickups, and minivans. Light-duty FFVs are designed to operate with at least 15% gasoline in the fuel, mainly to ensure they start in cold weather. FFVs are equipped with modified components designed specifically to compatible with ethanol’s chemical properties. In the illustration on the back, the main modifications for FFVs are described. These seamless operation and a long useful life across a wide range of ethanol blends. Clean Cities posts a list of alternative fuel vehicles, including FFVs, on its Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC) Web site at To find out about available models, go to the Vehicles section of the AFDC and use the Light-Duty Vehicle Search.


>E-85 Fact Sheet PDF Download


Retro and reinstated tax credits for AF/Infrastructure SD

January 2, 2013, President Obama signed Public Law 112-240, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012. The resulting changes are available for review on the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) Federal Laws and Incentives page Specifically, the Act:


Retroactively extends several tax credits that had expired on December 31, 2011. The following incentives are now effective through December 31, 2013:


Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Credit:

Public Law 112-240, Section 412
Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit:
Public Law 112-240, Section 402
Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit:
Public Law 112-240, Section 405
Expands the definition of second generation biofuel (previously referred to as cellulosic biofuel) to include biofuel from cultivated algae, cyanobacteria, or lemna, and extends two incentives related to these fuels through December 31, 2013:

Second Generation Biofuel Plant Depreciation Deduction Allowance:
Public Law 112-240, Section 410
Second Generation Biofuel Producer Tax Credit:

Public Law 112-240, Section 404
Extends discretionary funding for the following U.S. Department of Agriculture programs through September 2013:
Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees:

Advanced Biofuel Production Payments:

Ethanol Infrastructure Grants and Loan Guarantees: